The 123rd release of NuttX, Version 7.23, was made on December 4, 2017, and is available for download from the Bitbucket.org website. Note that release consists of two tarballs: nuttx-7.23.tar.gz and apps-7.23.tar.gz. These are available from:
Both may be needed (see the top-level nuttx/README.txt file for build information).
Additional new features and extended functionality:
* Core OS: - sem_open() should return SEM_FAILED on any failures. This is change in the POSIX specification since the original sem_open() was written so many years ago. - exec(): The non-standard interface exec() is now enshrined as a official NuttX API. I really dislike doing this but I think that this is probably the only want to load programs in the protected mode. It is currently used by some example code under apps/ that generate their own symbol tables for linking. Other file execution APIs relay on a symbol table provided by the OS. In the protected mode, the OS cannot provide any meaning symbol table for execution of code in the user-space blob so that is they exec() is really needed in that build case. And, finally, the interface is completely useless and will not be supported in the KERNEL build mode where the contrary is true: An application process cannot provide any meaning symbolic information for use in linking a different process. - OS Internal Functions: Rename many OS internal functions so it is clear that they are not part of the application interface. All internal functions with the sem_* prefix became nxsem_*, sig* become nxsig_*, mq_* become nxmq_*, etc. - Cancellation Points: Add new cancellation point interface, check_cancellation_point(). - Signals: Add logic to wake up a thread that is waiting on a signal if it is canceled. - sigtimedwait(): Add logic to suppress the wait if there is a pending cancellation. - clock_nanosleep(): Implement clock_nanosleep(). nanosleep() is now reduced to a libc wrapper around clock_nanosleep(). - task_delete(): Do not permit user applications to delete kernel threads. - kthread_create(): Rename kernel_thread() to kthread_create() for better naming consistency with task_create() and kthread_delete(). - boardctl(): Remove the BOARDIOC_GRAPHICS_SETUP command. - TCB: Move POSIX thread specific data from pthread TCB to common TCB structure. This change allows using pthread_getspecific and pthread_setspecific from main thread. Patch also enables using pthread data with config option CONFIG_DISABLE_PTHREAD=y. From Jussi Kivilinna. - mm: Remove the CONFIG_GRAN_SINGLE configuration option. It adds no technical benefit (other than some minor reduction in the number of interface arguments) but adds a lot of code complexity. Better without it. - mm: Add a function to get information about the state of the granule allocator. This is the moral equivalent of mallinfo(). * File Systems/Block and MTD Drivers - MT25Q Serial FLASH: Add support for Micron MT25Q series MT25Q128. From Sebastien Lorquet. - MX35LFxGE4AB: Add an MTD driver for Macronix MX35LFxGE4AB serial NAND flash. From Ekaterina Kovylova. - FileMTD: Add block device MTD interface. Block MTD interface allows using block device directly as MTD instead of having to use file-system in between. NOTE that this provides the opposite capability of FTL which will let you use an MTD interface directly as a block device. From Jussi Kivilinna. - BCH: The character driver to block device access now supports an IOCTL to get the geomtry of the underlying block device. - mkfatfs: Remove mkfatfs from the OS. This is a user-space application and belongs in apps, not in the OS. - procfs: Implements procfs /proc/fs/blocks and /proc/fs/usage files, replacing the NSH df command. Also implements procfs /proc/fs/mount file, replacing the NSH mount command when there are no arguments. - procfs: Add /proc/meminfo. This is an alternative way to get the information that was previoulsy available in apps/system/free. apps/system/free was removed beause it made illegal calls into the OS violating the portable interface. This new procfs entry provides the same information with no such violation. it also provides information about the kernel heap (formerly /proc/kmm), about the use of program memory(formerly /proc/progmem). And also information for the page table usage in the KERNEL build. - UserFS: Adds the UserFS client and of the UserFS feature in general. Initially used Unix domain local sockets instead of message queues. Easier to transfer big data in local sockets than message queues. However, that lead to certain inescapable deadlock conditions So the IPC was converted to UDP LocalHost loopback sockets. The problem with the local sockets is that they do require operations on the top level psuedo-file system inode tree. That tree must be locked during certain traversals such as enumerate mountpoints or enumerating directory entries. This conversion is unfortunate in the sense that Unix local domain sockets are relatively lightweight. LocalHost UDP sockets are much heavier weight since they rely on the full UDP stack. * Graphics/Display Drivers: - Framebufer character driver: Add framebuffer character device driver. - LCD Framebuffer: Add support for a generic front-end that will convert any LCD driver into a framebuffer driver. - Framebufer character driver: Include support for LCD drivers that use a simulated framebuffer and must receive explicit notification when there is an update to a region in the framebuffer. - LCD: Make LCD driver configuration indepently selected from NX graphics configuration. This makes things awkward and loses some error checking but is a necessary step in order to make LCD drivers usable when the NX graphics system is disabled. * Networking/Network Drivers: - Networking: Add implementation of logic for SIOCGIFCONF and SIOCGLIFCOF IOCTL commnds. - Network IOCTLs: Add support for the SIOCGIFBRDADDR ioctl() command. - Routing Tables: Permit IPv4 and IPv6 routing tables to be of different sizes. - Routing Tables: Adds support for read-only routing tables. Prior to this change, routing tables were only support in RAM and had to be initialized with explicit logic to add the necessary routes to the routing table. With this change, routes may be defined in the pre-initialized, read-only routing table provided by the board-specific logic. This would be particularly useful, for example, in the case where there is only a single network adaptor and you want all output packets to go to the single adaptor in all cases. So for that behavior you could add a read-only routing table to the board-specific long that contains a single entry, the default route: 0.0.0.0/0. - Routing Tables. Added support for routing tables in files in a file system. This might be useful for customized, per-unit routing tables. There are two issues with it however: 1. Reading from file system on a per packet basis could be slow. I think it probably should have a small, in-memory cache of most frequently used routes for good problem. 2. Currently the delroute logic is disabled due to a problem with the design. NuttX does not currently support truncate(). Therefore, it is not possible to delete entries from the routing table file. In this current implementation, that leaves the last entry intact at the end of the file. An alternative design might include a tag on each record to indicate if the record is valid or not. That would work but would add complexity to the other routing table functions. - Routing Tables: Add support for an in-memory routing table cache in order to improve performance when the routing table is retained in a file. The cache holds the most recently used routing table entries and so can eliminate some file access. Flush the in-memory cache when any entry is deleted from the routing table. When a router matching an IP address is found, add the routing table entry to the cache. - Routing Tables: Add logic to mark a route as most-recently-used in the route cache. - ICMP: This change adds support for semi-standard IPPROTO_ICMP AF_INET datagram sockets. This replaces the old ad hoc, nonstandard way of implementing ping with a more standard, socket interface. - ICMPV6: This commit adds support for semi-standard IPPROTO_ICMP6 sockets. This is a replacement for the non-standard ICMPv6 ping support that violated the portable POSIX OS interface. - ICMPv6: Add option to manually specify router prefix in router advertisement message. From Sakari Kapanen. - Local Sockets: This commit modifies the Unix domain local socket design. Local sockets are built on top of pipes. The Local socket implementation maintained file descriptors to interrupt with the pipes. File descriptors have the bad property that they are valid only while running on the thread within the task that created the local socket. As a policy, all internal OS implementations must use "detached" files which are valid in any context and do not depend on the validity of a file descriptor at any point in time. This commit converts the usage of file descriptors to detached files throughout the local socket implementation. * Wireless Networking/Wireless Drivers: - IEEE-802154: Adds support for receiving MAC events via IOCTL through socket interface. From Anthony Merlino. - IEEE-802154: Simplifies notify() and rxframe() calls to a single notify() call. dataind's and all other "notifs" are now "primitives" which aligns with standard terminology From Anthony Merlino. - MAC802154: Add support for getting promiscuous mode state From Anthony Merlino. - MAC802154 Character Driver: When in promiscuous mode, the char driver sends the entire frame, including the MAC header. This change adds an offset field indicating the header-payload boundary. It is set to 0 when not in promiscuous mode as the header is not passed to the application - 6LoWPAN: Remove CONFIG_NET_6LOWPAN_FRAMELEN. In this case where multiple radios are supported, this may not be a constant. 6LoWPAN now always queries the driver to get the maximum frame length. - 6LoWPAN: Support sending to a router that is on-link and may be able to forward the packet for us if the destination is not reachable directly. From Anthony Merlino. - XBee: Adds XBee S2C (802.15.4 firmware) support. XBee driver emulates mac802154 interface. From Anthony Merlino. * Other Common Device Drivers: - PowerLED: Add upper-half driver for high power LED driver (powerled) From Mateusz Szafoni. - RTC Driver: Add periodic alarms to upper and lower halves. From Juha Niskanen. - Pipes: Fix writing large buffers not triggering POLLIN for reader poll. From Jussi Kivilinna. - USB CDC/ACM Device: Add support for RX flow control to the CDC/ACM driver. - USB CDC/ACM Device: Add support for flow control TERMIOs in CDC/ACM driver. - USB RNDIS Device: Add RNDIS-over-USB driver. From Sakari Kapanen with added Hi-Speed support from Masayuki Ishikawa. - Loop Driver: Don't use file descriptors... Use the internal file system interfaces so that the loop device can be shared across threads. - APA102 LED controller: Add driver for APA102 LED controller. These LEDs are used on LED Strips and are controlled over SPI. - INA219. Add INA219 Driver. The INA219 is a combined voltage and current sensor that can measure up to 26 volts and a current that depends on an external shunt resistor. Connection happens via i2c/smbus and the chip features a power supply rail that is independent from the measured voltage, so it can measure low voltages. Right now it measures bus voltage and current, and does not use the internal calibrated current reading, nor the available power measurement. From Sebastien Lorquet. - PCA9555: The IRQ subsystem now supports passing a void * parameter to IRQ handlers. Use that method to support multiple PCA9555 devices, by passing a pointer to the device to the board defined irq handler. Now the CONFIG_ for multiple PCA devices just allocates device structures dynamically instead of statically when not enabled. The same interrupt handler is entered with the device structure parameter in all situations, multiple or single PCA. One should still be careful if multiple PCA devices share the same IRQ. From Sebastien Lorquet. - APDS-9960: Add driver for the APDS-9960 gesture sensor. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - MAX7219: Add support to MAX7219 LED Matrix as LCD interface. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - WM8774: Add WM8774 audio DAC support. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - Nunchuck: Add Nintendo Wii Nunchuck driver. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. * Simulation - Simulation: Add a configuration for non-graphical testing of the frambuffer character driver using apps/example/fb. - Simulation: Add a configuration for testing the UserFS using apps/examples/userfs. * Broadcom BCM2708: - BCM2708: Add enough infrastructrue (more stubs) to get a clean compilation of the Pi Zero configuration (with many undefined things at link time). This includes several register definition header files (some from Alan Carvalho de Assis), basic interrupt handling logic, boot-up files, GPIO support, tickless timer, build and configuration logic * Broadcom BCM2708 Boards: - Raspberry Pi Zero. Basic board support at configs/pizero. Untested in this release and still some remaining issues. * Infineon XMC4xxx Boards: - XMC4500-Relax: Add config for UART3 on RXD P0.0 and TXD P0.1 pins. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. * NXP Freescale LPC17xx Boards: - Open1788: Add initialization of Framebuffer driver. Add configuration for testing the framebuffer driver. * NXP Freescale LPC43xx Drivers: - LPC43xx: Add LPC43xx CAN driver. From Alexander Vasiljev. * NXP Freescale LPC43xx Boards: - MCB1700: Add support for Keil MCB1700 board. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - Open1788: Add support for the discrete joystick driver. - Open1788: Add a configuration for testing pdcurses with discrete joystick. * On Semiconductor LC823450 - LC823450: Add ADC driver and watchdog drivers. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - LC823450: Add IPL2 support. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - LC823450: Add I2S support. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - LC823450: Add auto LED for CPU activity. From Masayuki Ishikawa. * On Semiconductor LC823450 Boards - LC823450-XGEVK: Enable ADC and watchdog driver. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - LC823450-XGEVK: Add IPL2 support. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - LC823450-XGEVK: Add WM8774 support. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - LC823450-XGEVK: Add auto LED support. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - LC823450-XGEVK: Enable CONFIG_SMP for audio. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - LC823450-XGEVK: Add rndis configuration. From Masayuki Ishikawa. * STMicro STM32: - ARM Kconfig: Add support for classic ARM11 architecture selections. - STM32 Tickless: Removes the restriction to 16-bit counts when a 32-bit timer is used for tickless operation on the stm32. As it was, the restriction is very limiting, especially if one wants high granularity and large achievable intervals and has the hardware (namely the 32bit timers) available. From Rajan Gill. - STM32 L4 Kconfig: Add some L486 and L496 chips. From Juha Niskanen - STM32 F7: Adds architecture support for the STM32 F72x and F73x families. From Bob Feretich. - STM32 F7: Allow changing voltage output scaling setting and prevents enabling over-drive mode for low frequencies (STM32 F74xx, 75xx, 76xx, 77xx). From Jussi Kivilinna. Changes replicated for the 72xx and 73xx families. * STMicro STM32 Drivers: - STM32 ADC: Added support for ADC's IO_ENABLE_TEMPER_VOLT_CH ioctl on STM32F10XX and STM32F20XX. From Dmitriy Linikov. - STM32 Wakeup: Add logic for enabling wakeup pins. From Oleg Evseev. - STM32 PWR: Adds stm32_pwr_getsbf and stm32_pwr_getwuf functions that return the standby flag and the wakeup flag PWR power control/status register. From Oleg Evseev. - STM32 HRTIM: Sdd support for capture, chopper, deadtime and dump registers. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32 RTC: Canceling an alarm marks it as inactive. From Juha Niskanen - STM32 Serial: Add interface to get uart_dev_t by USART number, stm32_serial_get_uart(). From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 F33xx ADC: Initial ADC support for the STM32F33XX. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32 F33xx ADC: Add ADC DMA support to STM32F33 configuration. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32 L4 ADC: Port analog watchdog ioctl commands from the Motorola MDK. From Juha Niskanen - STM32 L4 ADC: Add option for routing ADC data to DFSDM, fix DFSDM DMA. From Juha Niskanen - STM32 L4 ADC: Add PM hooks from Motorola MDK - STM32 L4 FLASH: Add function for modifying device option bytes, From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 L4 DFSDM: Add peripheral support for digital filters for sigma-delta ADCs. Initial version. Timer trigger support is not completed and there is some issue with DMA. From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 L4 I2C: Port then STM32 F7 I2C driver to STM32 L4. STM32L4 I2C driver is in work-in-progress state (plentiful of TODOs and #warnings) and lags many features found in more up-to-date STM32 I2C drivers. The peripheral on STM32F7 and STM32L4 are identical except for L4's 'wakeup from stop mode' flag and STM32F7's I2C driver is in more 'ready to use' state. The I2C clock configuration is kept the same as before (I2CCLK = PCLK1 80 Mhz) instead of switching to STM32F7 arch default that is I2CCLK=HSI. Further work would be to add configuration option for choosing I2C clock source instead of current hard-coded default. From Jussi Kivilinna. - STM32 L4 RTC: Add up_rtc_getdatetime_with_subseconds - STM32 L4 RTC: Change maximum alarm time from 24h to one month. From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 L4 RTC: Add support for periodic interrupts with (experimental) CONFIG_RTC_PERIODIC. From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 L4 SDMMC: Add support for an SDMMC driver. From Miha Vrhovnik. - STM32 L4 Serial: Suspend serial for Stop mode. From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 L4 Serial/PM: STM32L4 serial PM interface improvements: Check rx/tx buffers for pending data in pmprepare. Remove adhoc PM interfaces and move serial suspend functionality behind CONFIG_PM. From Jussi Kivilinna. * STMicro STM32 Boards: - STM32F103-Minimum: Add board support for APA102 driver. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STM32F103-Minimum: Add ADC support on stm32f103-minimum board. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STM32F103-Minimum: Add support for LM75 in the stm32f103-minimum board. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STM32F103-Minimum: Add an ADPS-9960 example configuration. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STM32F103-Minimum: Add board support for MAX7219 LED Matrix controller. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STM32F103-Minimum: Add USB MSC device initialzation to stm32f103-minimum. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STM32F103-Minimum: Add framebuffer driver initialization for stm32f103-minimum board. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STM32F103-Minimum: Add Nunchuck board support for stm32f103-minimum board. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STM32F4 Discovery: Add support for JLX12864G display on STM32F4 Discovery board. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - Viewtool-STM32F107: Add support to auto-mount the procfs file system. - Photon: Support SPI1 and SPI3. From Anthony Merlino. - STM32F334-DISCO: Add lower half driver for high power LED (powerled). From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32F334-DISCO: Add flash mode support for powerled driver. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32F334-DISCO: Add powerled example configuration. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32F334-DISCO: Add lower-half driver for SMPS (buck-boost onboard converter). From Mateusz Szafoni - Nucleo-F334R8: Add logic for zero latency high priority interrupts example. From Mateusz Szafoni. - Nucleo-F334R8: Add highpri example configuration. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32 F4 Discovery: Added support for the LIS3DSH accelerometer on the STM32F4 Discovery rev. C boards. From Florian Olbrich. - STM32 F4 Discovery: ROMFS for STM32F4 Discovery board. From Tomasz Wozniak. - STM32 F4 Discovery: Add a USB MSC configuration. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STM32 F4 Discovery: RNDIS support on STM32F4Discovery + DM-STF4BB. NOTE: MAC address for the host side starts 0xaa. This assignment scheme should be fixed later. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - STM32 F4 Discovery: Add STM32F4 Discovery board support for Nunchuck joystick. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STM3240G-EVAL: Add a configuration for testing the Framebuffer character driver using the LCD framebuffer front. - STM3240G-EVAL: Mount procfs if enabled. - STM3240G-EVAL: Add support for pdcurses and the pdcurses demo programs in the 'fb' configuration. - Clicker2-STM32: Adds SD card, automount, and syslog file support and fixes a few minor issues. From Anthony Merlino. - Clicker2-STM32: Adds support for USB RNDIS device. From Anthony Merlino. - Olimex STM32-H407: Add serial support on the on-board UEXT connector. Add USART6 for UEXT connector. Add nsh_uext configuration and README update. From Jan PobÅÃslo. - Nucleo-F410RB: Add support for the nucleo-F410RB board. From Gwenhael Goavec-Merou. - STM32F429i-DISCO: Add framebuffer driver initialization. Add a framebuffer (fb) configuration. - STM32F429i-DISCO: Add logic to auto-mount procfs. Enable procfs in all configurations that use NSH. - STM32F429i-DISCO: Enable support for the STMPE811 touchscreen controller. Enable touchscreen and also the touchscreen testa at apps/examples/touchscreen in the fb configuration. - STM32F429i-DISCO: Convert NxWM configuration to use LTDC framebuffer driver instead of SPI serial. Also reduce number of layers from 4 to 1 in fb configuration. Only one layer is used. - STM32L476-MDK: Add support for the on-board LEDs. - Nucleo-L496ZG: Add DFSDM initialization. From Juha Niskanen - Nucleo-L496ZG: Add support for SDMMC driver. From Miha Vrhovnik. - Nucleo-L496ZG: Enable I2C4 bus with i2ctool in NSH configuration. From Jussi Kivilinna. - Nucleo-L496ZG: Make HSE on Nucleo-L496ZG default to enable USB. From Miha Vrhovnik. - Nucleo-F746ZG: Use the serial console over /dev/ttyACM0 by default. The Nucleo-F746ZG doesn't come with Arduio RS-232 shield, then it is better to use the serial over the /dev/ttyACM0 that is created automatically when the board is plugged in the computer. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - Nucleo-144: Adds support for the Nucleo-144 boards with STM32F722ZE. From Bob Feretich. * ZiLOG Z80 - z80/include: compiler.h, limits.h, types.h: Update SDCC/z80 files to include support for long long, inline, __FILE__, and __func__. * C Library/Header Files: - include/: Add stdnoreturn.h. Holds definitions for the C11 noreturn keyword. Applies to C too. - include/netinet/tcp.h: Add trivial standard tcp.h header file. - libc: Add support for readv() and writev(). - libc: Adds tcflow(). - libc: Add support for sigwait(). - libnx: Changes to allow the font subsystem to be built without enabling the entire graphics system (CONFIG_NX). Adds CONFIG_NXFONTS and CONFIG_NXGLIB. Needed to duplicate some Kconfig setting for NXFONTs if it can be configured and built independently of NX. * Tools: - tools/configure.sh: Add special support so that you can start with a windows native configuration and install on a different host (and vice versa). - tools/configure.c: Duplicate new functionaity added to configure.sh. - tools/configure.sh: This commit adds a -m option for macOS. For anyone not aware, Apple renamed OSX to macOS recently; thus the 'm' instead of 'o'. This does not change the other uses of *_OSX to macOS. From jeditekunum. - tools/configure.c: Update functionality to match last change to tools/configure.sh. * NSH: apps/nshlib: - apps/nshlib: mount command no long uses the non-standard OS interface foreach_mountpoint(). Now simply cats /proc/fs/mount when there are no arguments to the mount command. - apps/nshlib: df command no long uses the non-standard OS interface foreach_mountpoint(). Now simply cats /proc/fs/blocks or /proc/fs/usage. - apps/nshlib: The free commands no longer used mallinfo() to get the state of the use heap. Two reasons: That is not useful information in the kernel build. And (2) there are other memory resources of interest in other configurations such as the Kernel heap in PROTECTED and KERNEL builds, and the prog mem uses when FLASH is used to hold modifiable data. The free command has been extended to just dump the content of procfs entries and to include all of these other memory resources of the procfs entries are available. * Examples/Tests: apps/examples: - apps/examples/fb: Add a simple test for the framebuffer character driver.. - apps/examples/ostest: sem_open() now returns SEM_FAILED in the event of a failure. - examples/ostest: Extend cancellation test to make sure that cancelable threads waiting on a message queue or on a signal can be canceled. - Added a simple reader example for the LIS3DSH acceleration sensor on STM32F4Discovery. From Florian Olbrich. - apps/examples/apa102: Add a Rainbow example for APA102 LED Strip. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - apps/examples/flowc: Add a simple test of serial hardware flow control. - Add powerled driver example. From Mateusz Szafoni. - apps/examples/ina219: A simple infinite loop that polls the INA219 sensor and displays the measurements. From Sebastien Lorquet. - apps/examples/alarm: Add options for reading alarm value and canceling it. From Juha Niskanen. - Add -n samples to lm75 app and replace Centigrade with Celsius. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - apps/examples/adps9960: Add ADPS-9960 example. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - apps/examples/obd2: Add OBD2 example application. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - apps/examples/userfs: Add a test case for verifying UserFS. - apps/examples/smps: add SMPS driver example. From Mateusz Szafoni. - apps/examples/pdcurses: Bring in pdcurses demos and make them conform to the NuttX coding style. - apps/examples/pdcurses: Add a very simple example that just shows the entire character set (7-bit only). It adapts to the size of the framebuffer and, hence, can be used with very tiny displays. In fact it looks really dumb on big displays. - apps/examples/nunchuck: Add Nunchuck example application. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. * File System Utilies: apps/fsutils: - apps/fsutils/mkfatfs: Move mkfatfs from the OS to here. * Network Utilities: apps/netutils: - apps/netutils/netlib: Add netlib_ipv6adaptor() and netlib_ipv4adaptor(). - apps/netutils/netlib: Add helpers for reading the routing table: netlib_read_ipv4route() and netlib_read_ipv6route(). - apps/netutils/netlib: Add new utilities netlib_ipv[4|6]router() that can be used to determine the IP address of a router that would be used some some destination IP address that is not locally accessible. - apps/netutils/ftpc: Adds support for IPv6 and fixes various transfer issues. From Anthony Merlino. * CANUtilities: apps/canutils: - apps/canutils/libobd2: Add libobd2 for NuttX. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. * Graphics: apps/graphics: - graphics/traveler: Convert to use the framebuffer driver. - apps/graphics/pdcurs34: This commit brings the public domain pdcurses library into NuttX. NuttX graphics support based on the framebuffer character drivers has been integrated. Input is currently limited to a discrete joystick driver. * Wireless Utilities: apps/wireless: - apps/wireless/ieee802154/i8sak: Adds socket interface support. You can now use both socket or char driver to control the MAC layer. From Anthony Merlino. - apps/wireless/ieee802154/i8sak: Adds sniffer port option and a few other get/set parameters. From Anthony Merlino. - apps/wireless/ieee802154/i8sak: Changes 'notif' to 'primitive' corresponding to the changes in the Kernel. From Anthony Merlino. - apps/wireless/ieee802154/i8sak: Channel setting is now saved locally, so when performing a startpan or assoc, the channel previously set is still used, even though the MAC layer gets reset. From Anthony Merlino. - apps/wireless/ieee802154/i8sak: Adds ability to get/set rxonidle setting for MAC layer. From Anthony Merlino. - apps/wireless/ieee802154/i8shark: Adds i8shark, a sniffer "adapter" that captures all 802.15.4 traffic, packages it into a Wireshark ZEP packet, and sends it to a host running Wireshark From Anthony Merlino. * System Utilities (apps/system) - apps/system/ping and ping6: This commit removes the ping and ping6 commands from NSH and replaces then with the apps/system/ping and apps/system/ping6 built-in commands. The NSH ping commands had to be removed because they violated the portable POSIX OS interface. The apps/system/png and ping6 command uses the sem-standard IPPROTO_ICMP and IPPROTO_ICMP6 socket interfaces. * Platform-Specific Support (apps/platform)
Bugfixes. Only the most critical bugfixes are listed here (see the ChangeLog for the complete list of bugfixes and for additional, more detailed bugfix information):
* Core OS: - Task Environment Creation: Fix an error in the duplication of the child tasks environment in the special case where the parent's environment was created, but then all of the variables were unset. In that case, there is still an allocation in place but the size of the allocation is zero. This case was not being handled correctly when a child task attempts to create its environment and inherit the zero-size partent environment. Noted by Anthony Merlino. - timer_create(): Fix watchdog resource leak if cannot allocate a new timer. From Bruno Herrera. - OS Internal Functions: Internal OS functions should not return error information via the user errno variable: This includes functions like file_seek(), file_read(), file_write(), etc. The complete list is too long to duplicate here (please refer to the ChangeLog for details). - OS Internal Functions: Not only should internal OS functions not modify the errno variable, they should never introduce cancellation points: psock_connect(), psock_listen(), psock_getsockopt(), etc. The list is too long to duplicate here (please refer to the ChangeLog for details). - OS Internal Functions: Create OS internal versions of many applications functions that were used by the OS. The new versions differ from the application interfaces in that (1) they do not return error information via the errno variable, and (2) they never create cancellation points. This includes new internal interfaces like nxsem_init() that is like sem_init(), etc. There are too many to list here (see the ChangeLog for details). - Task Exit: task_exithook.c fails to link if signals are disabled because was unconditionally trying to send the SIGCHLD signal to the parent in certain configurations. Noted by Jeongchan Kim. - memalign(): Fix heap corruption caused by using unaligned chunk size. Unaligned nodes generated by memalign later cause heap corruptions when nodes are shrink further (for example, 24 bytes -> 8 bytes, when alignment is 16 bytes). From Jussi Kivilinna. - SMP: In sched/sched/sched_cpuselect.c, in order to find the cpu with the lowest priority thread, we have to remember the already found lowest priority. Noted by Anonymous in Issue #75. - spinlocks: Disable local interrupts in spin_setbit() and spin_clrbit() in order to avoid a deadlock condition. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - atexit()/on_exit(): Clear atexit()/on_exit() function pointer before calling it. On most archs, up_assert() calls exit() so without this change, if atexit() function triggers an assertion we are in endless loop. From Juha Niskanen. * File System/Block and MTD Drivers: - tmpfs: Fixed directory unlocking in tmpfs_opendir. From Dmitriy Linikov. - fcntl(): fcntl() did not return success fail for F_SETFL. Reported by Jussi Kivilinna. - tcdrain(): tcdrain() was recently added to the NuttX C library. But there is a problem. The specification of tcdrain() requires that it be a cancellation point. In order to do this, tcdrain was moved from the C library into the OS and the addition cancellation point hooks were added. In non-FLAT builds, access via system calls is also now supported. - FS FAT: Fix hard-fault when listing contents of FAT root. From Jussi Kivilinna. - procfs: Correct a problem that was causing an apparent directory to be reported as a file instead of a directory by opendir. This happened after adding these three new procfs entries: fs/block, fs/mount, and fs/usage. Of course, there is no directory fs in this case, only three files that have fs/ in their relative pathnames. The logic was detecting that fs was the name of the enty to report, but it was then declaring that fs was a file (because fs/block is of type file). This was fixed by adding a check for matching lenghts. i.e., if strlen(fs) != strlen(fs/block), then report fs as a directory instead of a file. - procfs: Fix uptime being clse to maximum 32-bit value in certain config. From Juha Niskanen. * Binary Loader: - binfmt/: Don't schedule starthook if there are no constructors. * Graphics/Display Drivers: - LCD: ILI9341 initialize method not permitted to set errno. * Networking/Network Drivers: - Networking: net/netdev/netdev_ifconfig.c: Was not returning all of the address info. - Networking: In some cases, packets are still not sent behind the router. I found that NuttX sends the ARP requests not to the router but to the target. Mistake in file net/route/netdev_router.c. From Aleksandr Kazantsev. - SIOCGIFCONF and SIOCGLIFCONF IOCTL commands should only report on network adatpors in the UP state. - recvfrom(): Fix double leave_cancellation_point on error path. From Jussi Kivilinna. - send(): Verify that sock descriptor is valid. Fixes assertion when using send on closed socket. From Jussi Kivilinna. - sendto(): Remove assert check for null psock and buf input pointers. Removes check as 'psock == NULL' altogether because that checked for later in psock_send and psock_sendto. Change null check for 'buf' so that it is handled same as in recvfrom.c (return -EINVAL instead of assert). From Jussi Kivilinna. - sockgetname() files need to include udp/udp.h and tcp/tcp.h or otherwise NET_UDP_HAVE_STACK and NET_TCP_HAVE_STACK are undefined and the logic is never compiled. Noted by Anthony Merlino. - dup()/dup2(): There was a reference counting problem in the TPC logic of net_clone(). net_clone() which is the common logic underlying dup() and dup2() for sockets. When net_clone() calls net_start_monitor() and net_start_monitor() returns a failure (because the underlying TCP connection) then net_clone() must back out the reference count on the structure. Problem noted by Pascal Speck and this implementation of the solution is based on his suggestion. - close(): There was a possible recursion that could eventually overflow the stack. The error occurred when closing the socket with inet_close() while a socket callback was still queued. When the socket callback was executed by devif_conn_event(), this resulted in a call to psock_send_eventhandler() with TCP_CLOSE flag set which then called tcp_lost_connection(). tcp_shutdown_monitor() then called tcp_callback() again, which again called psock_send_eventhandler(), and so on.... Noted by Pascal Speck. Solution is also similar to a solution proposed by Pascal Speck. - inet: Add check for protocol before handing out TCP and UDP sockets. - IP Forwarding: Fixes typo that caused build error when IP forwarding was enabled with CONFIG_NET_ICMPv6_NEIGHBOR enabled as well. From Anthony Merlino. - IP Forwarding: Do not add link layer header size to d_len inside devif_forward(). From Anthony Merlino. - TCP Networking: When CONFIG_NET_TCP_WRITE_BUFF=y there is a situation where a NULL pointer may be dereferenced. In this configuration, the TCP connection's 'semi-permanent' callback, s_sndcb was nullified in tcp_close_disconnect. However, other logic in tcp_lost_connection() attempt to use that callback reference after it was nullifed. Fixed in tcp_lost_connectino() by adding a NULL pointer change before the access. This was reported by Dmitriy Linikov in Bitbucket Issue 72. - UDP Broadcat: Fix some issues with regard to UDP broadcast handling. This is Bitbucket Issue #77. - ICMP: Fix an error in the poll logic. It was assumed that the input parmeter pvconn was valid. It was not. Instead, the poll logic must work like the sendto() and recvfrom() logic: It must keep a copy of the conn structure in the private data. - ICMPv6: Fixes several errors preventing icmpv6_radvertise.c from being compiled. Fixes conversions to network byte order (namely vlifetime, plifetime, mtu). IPv6 source address is set to link-local IP address instead of the address in the netdev structure. This is in compliance to RFC 4861. RA didn't work on Linux before this change. Finally, router prefix and prefix length are derived from the IPv6 address and netmask in the netdev structure. This seems to make more sense than using a predefined, separate prefix from the config. From Sakari Kapanen. - ICMPV6: icmpv6_input() needs to set d_len to 0 after consuming echo reply, otherwise, garbage will get sent out. From Anthony Merlino. - ICMPV6: Fix an error in the poll logic. It was assumed that the input parmeter pvconn was valid. It was not. Instead, the poll logic must work like the sendto() and recvfrom() logic: It must keep a copy of the conn structure in the private data. - IGMPv2 Send: Fix incoming IGMP checksum calculation. From Louis Mayencourt. - ARP: Fix IGMP Ethernet address computation. From Louis Mayencourt. * Wireless/Wireless Drivers: - CC1101: CC1101 driver not permitted to set errno. - 6LoWPAN: Correct an error in uncompressing multicast address. - 6LoWPAN: Correct a bug in handling uncompressed frames (IPv6 dispatch). Adds a separate local variable, protosize, to keep track of the size of thep protocol header. - 6LoWPAN: Fix an endian-ness problem in 6LoWPAN address decompression. From Anthony Merlino. - 6LoWPAN: The logic that extracts interface identifier from the IP address needs to be generalized to handle cases where the address is not a link local address. From Anthony Merlino. * Common Drivers: - Serial: 16550 UART driver IOCTL method must not set errno; it must return a negated errno value. - LIS3DSH: Added the argument parameter (FAR void *arg) to the interrupt handler provided by the LIS3DSH driver to fit the definition for ISRs in xcpt_t. Changed the check for working queue availability in lis3dsh interrupt handler to use work_available() and not crash in case of an overrun. From Florian Olbrich. - LIS2DH: Fixes for self-test. From Jussi Kivilinna. - LIS2DH: Fix use of obsolete dbg macro. From Jussi Kivilinna. - LIS331DL: LIS331DL driver not permitted to set errno. - HTS221: Power-on sensor for loading calibration data. From Jussi Kivilinna. - MCP2515: Fix the MCP2515 Bit Rate Prescale calculation. Fix BRP for SET_BITTIMING ioctl as well. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - STMPE811: Fix GPIO operation of STMPE811 driver. 1. STMPE811_GPIO_DIR was defined for register name and later was redefined to be the pin direction mask for `stmpe811_gpioconfig`. I decided to change register name to be STMPE811_GPIO_DIR_REG, and keep pin direction mask STMPE811_GPIO_DIR, so that any external code that already use this driver will be unchanged. 2. The STMPE811 register GPIO_DIR uses bit value 1 for output and 0 for input, but `stmpe811_gpioconfig` set the opposite. 3. The call to `stmpe811_gpiowrite` from inside of `stmpe811_gpioconfig` leaded to deadlock. From Dmitriy Linikov. - BQ2429X: Add BATIO_OPRTN_SYSON for enabling BATFET after SYSOFF. From Jussi Kivilinna. * Simulation: - Simulation: Serial and console drivers are not permitted to set the errno. * ARMv7-M: - ARM Stack Check: Fix assert panic when both TLS and interrupt stack are enable. From Jussi Kivilinna. * Expressif ESP32: * Infineon XMC4xxx Drivers: - XMC4 USIC: Kconfig was not selecting XMC4_USIC for USIC1. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - XMC4 UART: Fix XMC4xxx USIC UART sginal to be high level when in idle. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - XMC4 UART:xmc4_uart_configure() expects the channel# not uartbase as an input parameter. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - XMC4 UART: Enable RX/TX status. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - XMC4 UART: The Alternative Receive Interrupt was not being configured. * Infineon XMC4xxx Boards: - XMC4500-Relax: Setup max. freq. 120MHz and setup pull-up to UART RXD pin. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. * Microchip/Atmel SAMv7 Drivers: - SAMv7: DAC and ADC drivers are not permitted to set the errno. - SAMv7: Correct an error in RX DMA setup. From Manish Kumar Sharma. - SAMv7 USB: It is necessary to disable pre-emption and interrupts around a loop that copies TX data into the hardware in order to avoid a TX data underrun condition. From Anthony Merlino. * NXP/Freescale LPC31xx Drivers: - LPC31xx: Serial and console drivers are not permitted to set the errno. * NXP/Freescale LPC43xx: - lpc43xx: lpc43_adc.c was being selected by the build system wehn DAC was selected. * NXP/Freescale LPC43xx Drivers: - LPC43xx Ethernet: Fix some backward logic setting full-duplex and 100mbps when autoconfiguration is disabled. Noted by Anonymous in Issue #76. - lpc43xx: UART_RX pins should be configured with input buffers enabled. Otherwise it cannot be read. From Alexander Vasiljev. * STMicro STM32: - STM32 F2: Fixed build for STM32F20XX platforms when CONFIG_STM32_DMACAPABLE is enabled. From Dmitriy Linikov. - STM32 F4: Remove ltdc.h and dma2d.h. Those header files in that location permitted inclusion into application space logic and, hence, facilitated and encouraged calling into the OS and violating the portable POSIX OS interface. The definitions in those header files were move the appropriate location in the counterpart, architecture specific files at arch/arm/src/stm32/dma2d.h and ltdc.h. - STM32 L4: Build stm32l4_idle.c only if CONFIG_ARCH_IDLE_CUSTOM is not enabled. From Jussi Kivilinna. - STM32 F7: Remove ltdc.h and dma2d.h. Those header files in that location permitted inclusion into application space logic and, hence, facilitated and encouraged calling into the OS and violating the portable POSIX OS interface. The definitions in those header files were move the appropriate location in the counterpart, architecture specific files at arch/arm/src/stm32f7/dma2d.h and ltdc.h. * STMicro STM32 Drivers: - STM32: DAC and ADC drivers are not permitted to set the errno. - STM32 ADC: Clear pending interrupts. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32 CAN: Lower part of STM32 CAN driver arch/arm/src/stm32/stm32_can.c uses all three hw tx mailboxes and clears TXFP bit in the CAN_MCR register (it means transmission order is defined by identifier and mailbox number). This creates situation when order frames are put in upper part of CAN driver (via can_write) and order frames are sent on bus can be different (and I experience this in wild). Since CAN driver API pretends to be "file like" I expect data to be read from fd the same order it is written. So I consider described behaviour to be a bug. Fixed by settin the TXFP bit in the CAN_MCR register (FIFO transmit order). From comments by Alexey T, in Bitbucket Issue 73. - STM32 HRTIM: Fix pclk calculation. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32 HRTIM: Fix burst mode prescaler update. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32 (alt) I2C: Ensure proper error handling. Injecting data errors would cause the driver to continually reenter the isr with BERR an RxNE. This fix allows the error to be cleared and propagated to the waiting task. From David Sidrane. - STM32: LTDC and DMA2D drivers are not permitted to set the errno. - STM32 RTC: Workaround for potential subseconds race condition. In all recent STM32 chips reading either RTC_SSR or RTC_TR is supposed to lock the values in the higher-order calendar shadow registers until RTC_DR is read. However many old chips have in their errata this silicon bug (at least F401xB/C, F42xx, F43xx, L15xxE, L15xVD and likely others): "When reading the calendar registers with BYPSHAD=0, the RTC_TR and RTC_DR registers may not be locked after reading the RTC_SSR register. This happens if the read operation is initiated one APB clock period before the shadow registers are updated. This can result in a non-consistency of the three registers. Similarly, RTC_DR register can be updated after reading the RTC_TR register instead of being locked." - STM32 Serial: Do not stop processing input in SW flow-control mode. From Juha Niskanen. - STM32F33xxx ADC: Add some publicly visable interfaces and some code to support injected channels. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32F33xxx DMA: Add public interface to handle with DMA interrupts. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM32F33xxx RCC: Fix CAN clock enable. From Mateusz Szafoni. - stm32 F4 I2C: Ensure proper interrupt handling. Injecting data errors that causes a STOP to be perceived by the driver, will continually re-enter the isr with SB not set and BTF and RxNE set. This changes allows the interrupts to be cleared and propagates a I2C_SR1_TIMEOUT to the waiting task. From David Sidrane. - STM32 L4 Serial: Do not stop processing input in SW flow-control mode. From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 F7: LTDC and DMA2D drivers are not permitted to set the errno. - STM32 L4: DAC and ADC drivers are not permitted to set the errno. - STM32 L4 DAC: Do not configure output pin if it is not used. From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 L4 RTC, PM: Small fixes to subseconds handling, ADC power-management hooks - STM32 F4 RTC: Fix reading alarm value that is more than 24h in future. From Juha Niskanen - STM32 L4 RTC: Fix reading alarm value that is more than 24h in future. From Juha Niskanen - STM32 L4 TIM: Fix compilation of timers with complementary outputs when not PWM_MULTICHAN. From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 L4 RCC: Restore backup-registers after backup-domain reset. From Jussi Kivilinna. - STM32 L4 RTC: Correct RTC_SSR and RTC_TR read ordering. In all recent STM32 chips reading either RTC_SSR or RTC_TR is supposed to lock the values in the higher-order calendar shadow registers until RTC_DR is read. Change the register read ordering to match this and don't keep a workaround for a hypothetical race condition (not in any L4 errata, lets for once assume ST's silicon works as it is documented...) - STM32 L4 RTC: Init mode was never exited because nested locking in rtc_synchwait() disabled backup domain access. From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 L4 RTC: Use backup register magic value instead of INITS bit. The INITS (bit 4) of RTC_ISR register cannot be used to reliably detect backup domain reset. This is because we can operate our device without ever initializing the year field in the RTC calendar if our application does not care about correct date being set. Hardware also clears the bit when RTC date is set back to year 2000. From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 L4 RTC: Put back the SSR race condition workaround. ST has confirmed that the issue has not been fixed, and that it applies to STM32 L4 too (was not in errata sheets due to documentation bug) See discussion: https://community.st.com/thread/43710-issue-with-rtc-maximum-time-resolution . From Juha Niskanen. - STM32 F7 BBSRAM: Avoid assert in stm32_bbsram_savepanic. If panic happens before stm32_bbsram is initialized, stm32_bbsram_savepanic caused additional assert panic. Function has null pointer check, so drop DEBUGASSERT. From Jussi Kivilinna. - STM32 F7 I2C: fix I2C_M_NORESTART handling. From Jussi Kivilinna. - STM32 F7 I2C: Restore bus frequency after I2C reset. Copy frequency restoration fix from STM32L4 I2C driver to STM32F7 I2C driver. From Jussi Kivilinna. - STM32 F7 RTC: Fix reading alarm value that is more than 24h in future. From Juha Niskanen * STMicro STM32 Boards: - STM32F334-DISCO: Add missing ram_vectors configuration in linker script. From Mateusz Szafoni. - Nucleo-F334R8: Add missing ram_vectors configuration in linker script. From Mateusz Szafoni. - Nucleo-F334R8: Add Missing ADC trigger configuration tot he highpri configuration. From Mateusz Szafoni. - STM3240G-EVAL: The timer frequencies (BOARD_TIMx_FREQUENCY) are incorrectly defined inÂ board.h. Since the APB prescalers are set to divide by 4 and 2 respectively, the frequencies should be "2xAPBx" as said in the comment.Â The correct frequencies are already defined but as STM32_APBx_TIMx_CLKIN. From Mattias Edlund. - STM32F429i-DISCO: The ltdc configuration has been deleted because it violated the portable POSIX OS interface. It used apps/examples/ltdc and include ltdc.h and dma2d.h which were also removed for the same reason. * ZiLOG Z80 - configs/z80sim and xtrs: Serial driver lower halfs ioctl methods should return a negated errno value, not set the errno variable. - z80 Make.defs: Fixes dependency generation with newest SDCC compiler. - configs/z80sim: Fix a naming problem. Also, don't try to build the serial driver if CONFIG_NFILE_DESCRIPTOR=0. - Z80: Makefile fix for use with current SDCC. * Build System - configs/: All defconfig filess that include CONFIG_NET_ICMPv6_SOCKET=y need to select CONFIG_SYSTEM_PING6=y and deselect CONFIG_DISABLE_POLL. - configs/: All NX configuration... Because of recent changes to libnx/nxfonts, Supported bit per pixel must be separated specified for NXFONTs too and need to match the select BPP for NX. - Build system: Fix CONFIG_BUILD_KERNEL logic directories that have ubin and kbin subdirectories. Conditional logic was fine for CONFIG_BUILD_FLAT and CONFIG_BUILD_PROTECTED but generated useless dependencies if CONFIG_BUILD_KERNEL. * C Library/Header Files: - libc/stdio: Build the lib_noflush() and lib_snoflush() stubs even if CONFIG_FILE_DESCRIPTORS=0. They may still be needed. - libc and libnx: When the libraries are built into two libraries, a user space library and a OS space library (as in the PROTECTED and KERNEL build). Then the user space library must not use the OS internal interfaces; similarly, the OS must avoid using the userspace interfaces so that it does not muck the errno value or create spurious cancellation points. - libc/match: Use of exp() vs expf() in logf() caused function to be slow. From Alan Carvalho de Assis. - libnx: Fixes a memory leak that is caused because the client message queue is not unlinked after the client disconnects from the NX server. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - sscanf(): Fix sscanf() character conversion (%c): do not add '\0' at the end as for strings, cause, for example, parsing one character will fill two bytes: character itself and zero one '\0' after it, so will overflow one byte variable argument and corrupt memory for variables allocated after it. From Oleg Evseev. * Tools - tools/: configure.sh and configure.c should redirect stdout to /dev/null but should not suppress stderr output. * NSH: apps/nshlib: - apps/nshlib/: Avoid truncating the strcmp result in the parser into a unsigned char variable. nshlib/nsh_netcmds.c: Check for valid hostip before using it. From Bruno Herrera. - apps/nshlib/: Fix resouce leak in 'dd' commenad when 'if=' or 'of=' params are repeated in the command line. For example: dd if=/dev/null if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null or dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/zero of=/dev/null. From Bruno Herrera. - apps/nshlib: This commit eliminates the ping and ping6 commands from NSH and replaces them with 'built-in' commands at apps/system/ping and ping6. The original NSH version of ping commands violated the portable POSIX interface and, hence, had to be removed. The new system/ping and ping6 built-in commands uses the new IPPROTO_ICMP AF_INET and IPPROTO_ICMP6 AF_INET6 datagram sockets to implement ping. - apps/nshlib: Fix parsing of empty strings when CONFIG_NSH_CMDPARMS is not defined. Problem noted by Juha Niskanen. * Examples/Tests: apps/examples: - All configurations that use NXIMAGE or NXHELLO must select NX_MULTIUSER. All configuratinos that use examples/nxterm must enable CONFIG_LIB_BOARDCTL. - All configurations that use NXLINES must select NX_MULTIUSER. All configurations that use the NX server need to have larger POSIX messages. - apps/examples/adc: Fix g_adcstate.count initialization. From Masayuki Ishikawa. - apps/examples/elf: Remove low-level interfaces and replace with call to exec(). - apps/examples/nxflat: Remove low-level interfaces and replace with call to exec(). - examples/ostest: Works around a bug in printf() when cancellation points are enabled. printf() is a cancellation point because it calls write(). This is correct according to OpenGroup.org. However, printf holds the stdio library semaphore when it is canceled and this leaves the semaphore in a bad state. No fix for the printf bug yet. - apps/examples/nx: The NX example no longer supports single user mode. - apps/examples/nxtext: The nxtext example no longer supports single user mode. - apps/examples/nxhello now supports only multiuser mode. - apps/examples/nximage now supports only multiuser mode. - examples/nxlines: Now supports only multiuser mode. * Network Utilies: apps/netutils: - apps/netutils/ftpc: Fix some crazy comparisons to determine is a file is an absolute path. Noted by Anthony Merlino. * System Unitilities (apps/system) - apps/system/i2ctool: Fixed i2ctool write operation in `no restart` mode (flag `-n`). It seems that I2C driver has changed a bit since i2ctool was written, so now i2ctool sends repeated start even if `no restart` flag (-n) was passed to it. From Dmitriy Linikov.